The Congress of Vienna

Reactionary attempt to restore and preserve the Old Monarchies against new Republican and Nationalistic ideas.

The 3rd great peace congress of modern history for a European New Order was mainly the work of Prince Metternich who rejected the liberal and nationalistic ideas of the time as dangerous to the state.

Political principles of the congress :
restoration of the political situation of 1792;

Legitimacy (Talleyrand's principle to justify the dynastic claims of the Ancien Regime);

Solidarity (common policies of the legitimate princes against revolutionary ideas and movements).

The balance of power between the 5 great powers (Austria, Britain, Russia, Prussia & France) was restored.

Establishment of the Holy Alliance
The rulers of Greek Orthodox Russia, Catholic Austria and Protestant Prussia bound themselves to govern at home in a Christ. patriarchal spirit. They derived their right of intervention against all liberal and nationalistic movements from their responsibility to God (government by divine right)

All European monarchs, exept the Pope and the Sultan joined the alliance.

Opposition to the Holy Alliance errupted in the Revolutions of 1848.