The three great peace congresses

1648 The Peace of Westphalia
which ended the Thirty Years War (1618-48), a war which started as a religeous conflict and ended as a European power struggle fought between Protestant states and the Emperor. It signaled the beginning of the secularized state with relig. tolerance.

1713 The Peace of Utrecht
which ended the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13/14).
It brought about the partition of the Spanish Empire.

1814/15 The Congress of Vienna
which restored the monarchies of Europe to the pre-revolutionary era.