The Revolutions of 1848 were a series of revolts that took place in Europe because of a
recession and abuse of political power. But the liberal, national and social struggles
ended ultimately in failure.
The Revolutions first started in France where the people wanted
universal suffrage. The February uprising was led by Louis Blanc. King Louis Philippe was
overthrown and Louis Blanc's revolution established the second republic.
The February revolution in France gave the Liberals in the German states the idea to make a proposal for a unified German nation with a national parliament. But the old order was restored because the provisional government couldn't decide on a new constitution.
The Italian states also had a revolution which made Pope Pius IX flee Rome. This gave the leader of unification, Mazzini, the chance to unify Italy. But the attempt failed because of the Italians states overwhelming protectiveness of their independence.
Within the Austrian Empire there was increased Nationalism among the Czechs, Hungarians, Germans, and other groups. This radical Nationalism led to riots and the ousting of Prince Metternich and the Emperor of Hapsburg. In Hungary, which was under Austrian rule, Kossuth took control of the government and gave all of the Hungarian lands freedom. But once again the revolt failed and the plot was defeated.