Ch'ing   China   1644-1911

The early Manchu rulers intended to protect the empire by a number of buffer zones. The most important ruler, Emperor K'ang Hsi, establ. protectorates over Mongolia (1696) and Tibet (1724).

In the late 1700's China reached her largest territorial expansion. Internally an extended period of peace led the population to grow from 100 million in 1680 to 180 million in 1780, but the domination of the giant empire by the small Manchu people could only be secured by police-state methods and by the introduction of dual - occupancy (Manchu / Chinese) of all governmental offices.

The Manchus were always regarded as foreign invaders and during the 19th century they lacked popular support to resist the partition of China into European spheres of influences. (see Map)

Manchu rule was further weakened by famine, the Opium War and the Taiping rebellion. The constant failures of the Imperial government led to a growing Chinese belief that the Manchu dynsasty had lost the Mandate of Heaven and Manchu rule was replaced by a Chinese Republic in 1912.

From History Online
by Frank E. Smitha.

Ming to Manchus
Summary :
Ming Dynsasty in the 1500's; Arrival of Manchus.