Before he conceived the idea of Pennsylvania, he became the leading defender of religious toleration in England. He was imprisoned six times for speaking out. While in prison, he wrote several pamphlets, which gave Quakers a literature and attacked intolerance.
William Penn was the first great hero of American liberty. He insisted that women deserved equal rights with men. He gave Pennsylvania a written constitution which limited the power of government, provided a humane penal code, and guaranteed many fundamental liberties.
Walter Raleigh studied law in England, but before he finished he went on an expedition of piracy with his brother.
In 1580, Raleigh became the captain of the army of Ireland and suppressed a rebellion. Ten years later he was at the height of his power. He had been knighted and was one of the queen's favorites.
A short time later he lost the queen's favor and after she died the new king charged him with treason. Raleigh convinced the king to let him free by promising him the gold of Spain. The king had ordered him not to engage the Spanish in war but Raleigh's son attacked a village and was killed.
Upon return to England Raleigh was executed for disobeying orders.
He demonstrated the importance of carbon in making steel, published a six-volume work on insects, designed an egg incubator, and developed a water and alcohol thermometer using the Réaumur temperature scale.
Reaumur divided the fundamental interval between the ice and steam points of water into 80 degrees, fixing the ice point at 0 Degrees and the steam point at 80 degrees. The reaumur scale, although of historical significance, is no longer in use.
Roentgen became a celebrity almost overnight, and several of his colleagues (against his objections) tried to rename the new form of radiation 'Roentgen'.
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