Liebig, Justus


German chemist who developed early organic, biological and agricultural chemistry.

Liebig was one of the most influential chemists of the 19th century, and he laid the groundwork for the extensive research in organic chemistry that was to characterize the later half of the 19th century.

He studied chemical analysis at Bonn, and advanced his studies under Gay-Lussac, and others, in Paris. On his return to Germany he joined the University of Giessen, where he began his career as one of the premier chemistry teachers of all time.

Another of Liebig's major accom-plishments was in the field of applied chemistry. Two books,
' Organic Chemistry an its Application to Agriculture and Physiology ', and ' Organic Chemistry in its Application to Physiology and Pathology ' revolutionized food production.

www link :
Justus Liebig Biography


Linnaeus, Carolus


Swedish botanist who developed a universal system for the naming of plants and animals according to genus and species.

His 'Species plantarum' described plants in terms of genera and species, and the 10th edition of 'Systema naturae' applied this system to animals as well, classifying 4,400 species of animals and 7,700 species of plants.

www link :


Lomonosov, Mikhail V.


Russian scientist and scholar who established a university in Moscow.

His major scientific accomplish-ment was in the field of physical chemistry, with other notable discoveries in astronomy, geo-physics, geology and mineralogy. He also is known as a poet, artist, and Russian historian.


Mackenzie, Alexander


Scottish-born trader and explorer who was the first European to cross the northern part of the American continent.

As a young boy, he had moved from Scotland to Montreal, where he became involved in the fur trade. When his company joined with the North West company in 1787, Mackenzie became a partner and set off for Athabasca, where he conceived the plan to find an overland route to the Pacific. He discovered the Arctic Ocean and charted a great river, which was later named the 'Mackenzie River'.

After his return to England he urged Britain to assert control over the Pacific Northwest.


Magellan, Ferdinand


Portuguese navigator who led a Spanish expedition to circumnavigate the world for the first time.

In 1519 he set sail with five ships and 270 men. In a heroic voyage, fraught with many problems, three of the ships crossed the Pacific. Magellan himself was killed in the Philippines but one ship managed to sail around Africa and arrived back in Spain in 1522 with a crew of only 18 men.

www link :