1050 - 1106
German Emperor

Henry IV succeeded to the throne at the age of six. He attempted to con-solidate his imperial power by engaging in a monumental struggle with pope Greory VII.

As a result of the investiture con-troversy (wether bishops should be appointed by the pope or emperor) Henry IV deposed the pope, the pope in return excommunicated the emperor.

The opposition of the German princes forced Henry to travel to Canossa in Italy and beg for absolution from the pope (Penance at Canossa 1077).

Following a second excommunica-tion Henry IV nominated the archbishop of Ravenna as antipope. Besieged by the reform movement led by pope Urban II (the successor of Gregory VII) Henry IV was forced to abdicate in 1106, the same year he died at Liege.

www link :
The Medieval Sourcebook:
Letter to Gregory VII, 1076