1316 - 1378
After Charles succeeded his father as king of Bohemia he established a hereditary rule in Bohemia and an alliance with the Austrian Habsburgs.
Charles IV made Bohemia the basis of his power and was elected 'Holy Roman Emperor of the German nation' - but he left Germany largely to its princes.
In 1356 he issued the Golden Bull, laying down a permanent constitution for the Empire. He established the first German university at his capital Prague.
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