Boniface VIII
c.1235 - 1303
Boniface was pope from 1294 to 1303 and became the foremost exponent of papal supremacy. During his pontificate he instituted the Jubilee of 1300, the first Holy Year.

Born Benedict Caetan, he studied law in Bologna and rose rapidily in the church hierarchy until he succeeded the resigning pope Celestine V as Boniface VIII.

His demand for exemption from taxation for the Church led to a conflict with the king of France. In his bull Unam Sanctam Bull he restated the supremacy of the Church and he recognized King Albert I of Habsburg as the Holy Roman emperor as supreme ruler over all kingdoms, including France. This led to the pope's imprisonment for two days by the French adviser Nogaret. Soon after his release the mentally broken pope died.

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