c.582 - 644
Arab Caliph

Omar, or Umar ibn al-Khattab, was the second caliph of Islam (successor to Mohammed).

Omar directed the spectacular Arab conquest of Egypt, Syria and Mesopotamia and organized the Arab empire. He ordered that the conquered peoples were to live in peace, keep their own religion and laws, and pay taxes.

The Muslim Arabs were to dwell apart in newly constructed garrison towns as a priviliged caste supported by the taxes of the conquered. Before Omar died by the dagger of a Persian slave he had six leading companions of the Prophet appointed to elect a new leader.

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The Status of Non-Muslim under Muslim Rule