King of Poland and Sweden
Son of John III of Sweden and Catherine of Poland. Elected to the throne of Poland in 1587, he also inherited the Swedish crown ten years later.
He tried to restore Catholicism to Sweden, but when he left Sweden for Poland
the regent, his uncle (later Charles IX) rebelled, defeated and deposed him in 1599.
The two countries remained intermittently at war until 1660.
He carried on a protracted war against the Mogul rulers of northern India. He was enthroned as an independent sovereign in 1774. Later he became known for his religious tolerance and social reforms.
After he was exiled by Napoleon (1808)
he become counsellor to Tsar Alexander I and played a leading part in forming
the anti-Napoleonic alliance between Russia and Prussia.
After WW II he proclaimed himself President and
spent the next four years to drive out the Dutch. In 1963 he declared himself
President for life. His cooperation with the Chinese dominated Indonesian Communists
led to a bloody military coup in 1965. He was disposed and kept under house arrest until his death.
In 1923 he gained control of the country with Russian support. He reorganised the Kuomintang
party whose "Three Principles of the People" inspired both Nationalists and Communists.