The son of a merchant he made an extended pilgrimage to Muslim and Hindu shrines in India, returning to the Punjab in 1520.
He became the founding guru of the
Sikh faith, combining Hindu and Muslim beliefs into a
During his prosperous reign Paris was rebuilt, Indo-China was acquired and the Suez
Canal opened. He was defeated by Bismarck in the
Franco-Prussian War and went into exile in England in 1871.
he became Prime Minister and then President until his death. He introduced land reform; built the Aswan Dam; followed a neutralistic foreign policy between
the great powers; and provided leadership for the
Arab nationalist movement, which led to two wars
(with Israel, Great Britain and France, 1956, with Israel, 1967) and increasing dependence on the USSR.
Back in India Nehru supported Gandhi's civil disobedience movement and for the next 27 years worked unceasingly for Indian independence, often imprisoned by the British.
Several times president of the Indian National Congress he became India's
first prime minister (1947-64). He established parliamentary government and
became a leader of nonalignment in world affairs.
After independence (1957) he became first President of
the Ghana republic (1960). He declared a one-party
state and was deposed in 1966 by the army while on a
visit to China.