John F. Kennedy
He was the youngest candidate and first Roman Catholic to be elected President.
His Inaugural Address offered the memorable injunction: "Ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country." As President, he set out to redeem his campaign pledge to get America moving again. His economic programs launched the country on its longest sustained expansion since World War II.
Kennedy launched an unsuccessful attempt to invade Cuba; later he confronted the Russians in the Cuban missiles crisis; signed a nuclear test ban treaty; and directed the US space agency to launch a manned flight to the moon within ten years.
To the shock of the nation he was assassinated in Dallas, Texas.
Later he led the Kenyan delegation to the
London constitutional conference of 1962; became Prime Minister, and then
President in 1964.
Following the revolution that deposed the shah, Khomeini returned to Iran in 1979,
declared an Islamic republic, and began to exercise ultimate authority in the nation.
His rule was marked by the holding of U.S. hostages (1979-81) and by war with Iraq (1980-88).
In 1956 he launched the de-stalinisation
campaign; confronted the US in the Cuban missiles crises; sent Soviet troops to
suppress the uprising in Hungary; and in 1964 was forced to resign by an increasingly
In 1916 he became Prime Minister in a Coalition government and
represented Great Britain at the Paris Peace Conference, where he exercised
a moderating influence on his allies. In 1922 the Liberals, divided between
Lloyd George and Asquith, were defeated, and the Liberal Party declined as
a political force.