Shah of Persia
Founder of the Safavid dynasty which ruled Persia from 1501 - 1736.
Ismail proclaimed Shi'ism the state religion. The establishment of the Safavi Empire was disturbing to the rest of the Muslim world, because the shah's followers thought him to be the rightful head of the entire Muslim community. This brought the Safavids into conflict with the Sunni Ottoman sultans who claimed the leadership of the Islamic community for themselves.
James I believed strongly in his own divine right to rule and he had several disputes with Parliament which degenerated into civil war under his successor.
His intolerance of Protestants led the Puritans to migrate to New England. During his reign a translation of the Bible was commissioned - it has become known as the King James Version.
Jinnah first entered politics by participating in the 1906 Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress, the party that called for dominion status and later for independence for India.
At first he was a supporter of Hindu-Muslim unity but after the rise of Gandhi he became concerned about the future position of Muslims in a close-knit structure of Hindu social organisation. Slowly Jinnah became convinced that a Muslim homeland on the Indian subcontinent was the only way of safeguarding the Muslim way of life. He joined the Muslim League and converted it into a powerful instrument for unifying the Muslims into a nation.
As President of the Muslim League he demanded
a separate Muslim state in 1940, securing the partition
of India in 1947. He became the first Governor-General of Pakistan, where
he is still revered as the father of the nation.
He continued his mother's
attempts to reform the Habsburg dominions, but he was
harassed by disaffection in Hungary and the Austrian Netherlands.
He agreed to the partition of Poland.