Second President of the United States (1797-1801).
He was a leading advocate of resistance to British rule before the
American War of Independence. He was
American ambassador to Britain (1785-8), and author
of 'Thoughts on Government'
He emancipated the serfs in
1861, and introduced legal, and military reforms.
He extended the Russian frontiers
into the Caucasus and Central Asia, and defeated Turkey in
the last of the Russo-Turkish wars (1877-8). He was assassinated.
He declared the creation of the state of Turkey in 1923 and obtained the abolition of the sultanate. Under his presidency (1923-38), the Turkish Republic promoted Turkish nationalism and secularism. He stressed the republican form of government representing the power of the electorate.
The Islamic courts of law were abolished and a new constitution in 1928 removed all references to religious life. After 1933 Kemal Mustafa assumed the name of Ataturk.
The first Muslim nation to become a Republic, Turkey has served since the early 1920s as a model for Muslim nations in the emerging world. Ataturks major legacy is the separation of church and state within an Islamic nation.
Aurangzeb's reversal of the traditional policy
of tolerance towards Hindus led to many rebellions, and wars with the Rajputs and the
Marathas. Under his rule the empire began a slow but steady disintegration.