G. W. Leibniz 1646  1716 German Philosopher 

Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, was a German mathematician, scholar,
and philosopher. He shares with Issac Newton the honour
of developing the theory of the differential and integral calculus.
He was born in Leipzig, Germany, and studied there, spent time in Paris and London,
and in 1676 became librarian to the Duke of Brunswick at Hanover.
He also travelled in Austria and Italy.
In Berlin Leibniz made original contributions to optics, mechanics, statistics, logic, and probability theory. He wrote on history, law, and political theory, and he conceived the idea of calculating machines.
Leibniz also developed a comprehensive cosmic philosophy, a theory he called monadology.

www link : From the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy G. W. Leibniz 