973 - 1048
Al-Biruni was one of the most learned men of his age who
corresponded with the great philosopher Ibn Sina.
He spent a large part of his life in Ghazni, Afghanistan. In 1017 he travelled to India. Conversant in Turkish, Persian, Sanskrit, Hebrew and Arabic Al-Biruni became the most important interpreter of Indian science to Islam.
In astronomical works he discussed the theory of the earth's rotation on its axis, in physics he advanced hydrostatic laws and in geography he advanced the visionary view that the Indus valley had once be a sea basin.