Beckett, Samuel


Writer and playwright, born in Dublin, Ireland. From 1932 he lived mostly in France and became an associate of James Joyce.

His early poetry and novels were written in English but his works after 1951 all were published first in French. His most famous plays are 'Waiting for Godot' (1954) describing that life means waiting, killing time and clinging to the hope that relief may just be around the corner,
and 'End Game' (Fin de partie).

Beckett was the first of the absurdists to win international fame. His characters exist in a terrible dreamlike vacuum, overcome by an overwhelminh sense of bewilderment and grief, grotesquely attempting some form of communication, the crawling on, endlessly.

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Lord Byron, George


English poet who suceeded his uncle at the age of 10. In 1809 he travelled around the Meditarrenean and spent some time in Greece where he aided the Greeks in their fight for independence from Turkey. Deeply mourned by the Greeks, he became a hero throughout their land.

In Greece he wrote two cantos of 'Child Harold', which made him famous. His other works include 'Manfred' and 'Don Juan'.


Huxley, Aldous


Novelist and essayist, born in Godalming, Surrey, the grandson of T.H. Huxley. He studied at Oxford, lived in Italy in the 1920's, and moved to California in 1937.

His reputation was made with his satirical novels 'Crome Yellow' and 'Antic Hay'. His best-known work is 'Brave New World', where he warns of the dangers of dehumanization in a scientific age. He also experimented with drugs; on his deathbed Aldous ingested two doses of LSD.


Joyce, James


Irish writer, born in Dublin. He went to Zurich (1915), settled in Paris (1920-40), then returned to Zurich, where he died.

His early work includes some short stories, but his best-known book is 'Ulysses', based on one day in Dublin. It is considered one of the most important novel of modern times.

Joyce' work revolutionized the novel form, partly through the abandonment of ordinary plot for 'stream of consciousness', but also through his unprecedented exploration of language.