Constant interferrence into Polish affairs by Russia and Austria during the eigtheenth century brought in 1772 the 1st Partition of Poland in order to avert war between Russia and Austria.

Poland lost more territory in a
2nd Partition (1793) which led to a Polish uprising under the national hero Kosciuszko. The uprising was suppressed by Prussian and Russian troops.

The uprising was followed by the 3rd Partition (1795) and the dissolution of the state.

Polish legions fought under Napoleon who established in 1807 the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, which was later at the Congress of Vienna joined to Russia in personal union, and after a futile Polish revolution (1830/31) Poland became a Russian province.