Napoleonic Wars
Map: The Empire
Napoleon appointed commander of the French revolutionary troops in Italy.
Napoleon defeats Austrians in Italy, and establishes Lombard Republic.
Napoleon advances to Vienna. Back in Paris, Napoleon is appointed to command forces for the invasion of England.
Napoleon lands in Egypt (to hit Britain indirectly) and defeats the Mamelukes. A British naval victory at Aboukir cuts off his army from France. He returns to Paris, over-throws the directory and becomes Consul.
War of the coalition (Britain, Austria, Russia) against France, fought in Austria, Switzerland, Italy, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic.
After Austria and Russia conclude peace, England becomes isolated. Mar. 1802
Peace of Amiens. England surren-ders many colonial conquests, the French, in turn, leave Egypt.
Napoleon crowned Emperor in the presence of Pope Pius VII in Paris
Resumption of warfare against the coalition joined by Sweden and Naples. Napoleon defeats an Austrian army at Ulm and enters Vienna.
Oct 20, 1805
British Admiral Nelson wins the naval battle of  Trafalgar, which secures British supremacy at sea.
Napoleon abandons plans for an invasion of England.
Dec, 1805
Austria defeated at the battle of Austerlitz in Austria.
Napoleon forces Francis II to give up the German imperial crown; end of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (began in 1232). German states form Confederation of the Rhine under French protectorate.
Oct, 1806
Prussian army destroyed at the b.of Jena. Prussia loses Polish territories.
Proclamation of the Continental System (embargo) to isolate England.
Jul, 1807
Peace of Tilsit. Division of Europe into French and Russian spheres of influences. Duchy of Warsaw established.
Spanish campaign. Madrid occuppied but fierce guerrilla war ties up French forces.
Greatest extent of the empire which contains 50 million of the 175 million inhabitants of Europe.
Russia discontinues embargo on England. Napoleon invades Russia.
Russian Campaign by the Grand Army ends in a catastrophic retreat from Moscow, and with the loss of 500,000 men. Napoleon's defeat in Russia revives the national resistance of European peoples. Liberation of Madrid. Liberation of Germany, Holland and Upper Italy.
Prussia and Austria declare war and defeat Napoleon in the battle of Nations at  Leipzig.
Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to the island of  Elba.
Napoleon returns for 100 days but is again beaten in the battle of Waterloo by the combined armies of England and Prussia. Napoleon surrenders to the English and is exiled to St. Helena.