Mexican Independence 1821

The Spanish Colonial Empire included the Vice-Royalty of New Spain, established in 1535.
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New Spain expirienced several crisis (uprisings of the priests Hidalgo y Costillo 1810 and Morelos 1815). Independence from Spain was obtained by Colonel Augustine de Iturribe (1783-1824).

Declaration of Independence of Mexico in 1821: Iturribe proclaimed himself emperor, but was sent into exile by General Santa Ana (1797-1876) and later executed.

In 1823 a republic was established under General Victoria (1768-1843); the 'United Provinces of Central America' separated from Mexico. Despite domestic struggles between 'federalist' and 'centralists', Santa Ana was able to defeat a Spanish army of invasion in 1829; he established a dicatorial regime in 1833, which lasted until 1855. However, Texas was lost to the US in the Mexican War (1846-48).

( see Mexican War )