The Great Turkish War   1683-99
Turkish assault on Central Europe.

The Turkish armies besiege Vienna (1683). They also advance towards Poland and the Ukraine.
A European relief army, led by the Polish king Sobieski is victorious at Kahlenberg in Austria.

When the Turks retreat they leave behind many bags of coffee, a drink so far unknown in Euope. In the wake of Turkish retreat from Vienna the first Coffee Houses in Europe opened in Vienna.

1684 Holy alliance (Austria, Poland, Venice and Russia) against the Turks under the Protector Pope Innocent XI.

Prince Eugene of Savoy   (who was in the service of Austria since 1683) becomes supreme commander of the Imperial army. Under Eugene's leadership the Turks are beaten in the decisive battle of Zenta, followed by the seizure of Sarajevo in 1697.

1699   Peace of Karlowitz: Austria becomes a major power. Venice recieved Morea; but is was reconquered in 1715, which led to another Turkish War. Victories by Prince Eugene and conquest of Belgrade (1717)
1718 Peace of Passarowitz : greatest extension of the Austrian Habsburg Empire.   (see Map)