Brief African Chronology since 1800
1805-48   Mohammed Ali rules Egypt.
(Egypt breaks away from the Ottoman empire).

1814   Cape Colony in south Africa ceded
to Britain by the Netherlands.

c. 1816-28   Shaka rules Zulu nation in South Africa.

1822   Liberia founded in West Africa as home
for freed slaves.

1830   French invade Algeria

1832-47   Abd-al-Kadir leads Arab resistance
to France in Algeria.

1836-37   The Great Trek of Boers (Dutch
farmers) away from British in South Africa;
they establish the Republic of Natal in 1838
and the Orange Free State in 1854.

1852   Tukolor leader al-Hajj 'Umar launches
Jihad war along Senegal and upper
Niger rivers to establish an Islamic state.

1852   In South Africa, Britain recognizes
Transvaal's independence.

1853-56   Dr David Livingstone crosses Africa
and reaches Victoria Falls.

1855-68   Reign of Emperor Theodore
of Ethiopia.

1865-68   Wars between Orange Free State
and Basuto people, in South Africa.

1872   Cape Colony in South Africa granted
self-government by Britain.

1879   Zulu war with the British.

1880-81   First Boer War, Transvaal
defeats Britain.

1885   Conference in Berlin
on 'Scramble for Africa'.

1885   The Mahdi (Muslim leader) takes
Khartoum from Egypt.

1896   France takes Madagascar.

1896   Ethiopian ruler Menelik crushes Italian army
at Adowa.

1899-1902   Second Boer War in South Africa.

1904   France creates Federation of
French West Africa.

1905   Maji-Maji rebellion begins in Tanzania
(German East Africa).

1908   Belgium takes over Congo Free State.

1910   Union of South Africa.

1912   French make Morocco a Protectorate.

1914   Britain and France occupy German colonies
in West Africa.

1921-26   Abd-el-Krim leads Berbers and Arabs
against Europeans in North Africa.

1922   Egypt becomes independent from Britain
under King Fuad.

1930   Haile Selassie crowned emperor of Ethiopia.

1935-36   Italians under Mussolini invade and
annex Ethiopia.

1941   Ethiopia liberated from Italians by
Ethiopians and British, and recognized as independent.

Independence struggle for African states

1951   Libya gains independence.

1952-59   Mau-Mau guerrilla war against
British in Kenya.

1954-62   War for independence in Algeria.

1960   18 African nations gain independence.

1991   Abolition of Apartheid laws in S'Africa.

1993   Mandela elected President of S'Africa.

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