Asia Minor, Mesopotamia and Persia

Rule of the Seleucides (304-64 B.C.), founded by Seleucus I (governor of Babylon).

Seleucus ruled over the territory of the conquered Persian empire. In exchange for 500 war elephants for the war against Antigonus of Macedonia Seleucus left the Indian provinces of the former Persian empire to Chandragupta who was the founder of the Maurya dynasty in India.

The vast empire could not be held together for long and the establishment of several kdms (Pergamum, Parthia) reduced the size of the Seleucid territory.

Antiochus III, the most important of the Seleucide rulers, fought with the Romans in Syria and Palestine. The empire was terminated by the Roman general Pompey in 64 B.C.