The Iberian conquest
The Carthaginian leader Hamilcar began the Iberian conquest with his son-in-law Hasdrubal who became the Carthaginian commander after Hamilcar's death in battle in 228 BC. Hasdrubal extended the newly acquired empire by skilfull diplomacy and consolidated it by the foundation of Carthago Nova (Cartagena). He was killed by a Celtic assassin.

The 2nd Punic War (218-201 BC) The second Punic War is most remembered for the Carthaginian Hannibal's crossing of the Alps. He and his army invaded Italy from the north. Hannibal won three dramatic victories, Trebia, Trasimene, and Cannae, and won over several Roman allies. Hannibal occupied much of Italy for 15 years, but never achieved the ultimate goal causing a political break between Rome and its allies.

While fighting Hannibal in Italy, Hispania and Sicily, Rome also simultaneously fought against Macedon. The First Macedonian War (214-205 BC) was fought by Rome against Philip V of Macedon. There were no decisive engagements, and the war ended in a stalemate.

The Carthaginians recalled Hannibal in 203 BC from Italy when Scipio landed with a Roman army in North Africa to fight Carthage on its home turf. The battle of Zama in 202 BC ended the Second Punic War when Scipio defeated a Carthaginian force led by Hannibal. Carthage sued for peace, which was given to them by Rome on very humiliating terms, ending the 17-year war.

To the 3rd Punic War