Ancient kingdom in todays southwestern Iran, with Susa as its capital. Elamite language is only partly understood by scholars - and there are no modern descendants of it. After 3000 BC the Elamites developed a semipictographic writing system which we call Proto-Elamite. Through large parts of Elam's history we hear nothing about its situation and status.


c. 6000 BC
First traces of civilization - the area of Elam is one of the oldest civilized areas in world history.

c. 2200 BC
Elam is under the control of Ur.

c. 2000 BC
Elam is a strong power, being able to conquer and destroy Ur.

c. 1600 BC
It is believed that the Kassites, who captured Babylonia, also destroyed Elam.

c. 1160 BC
The Elamites once again rise to power; they drive the Kassite out of Babylonia, and the first Elamite empire arises, but it is very short-lived.

c. 1120 BC
Susa and Elam is sacked by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar. This lead to the end of the Elamite empire.

c. 750 BC
A new Elamite kingdom rises, but it is often threatened by the Assyrians.

645 BC
Elam is conquered by the Assyrians, and annexed into their kingdom. It was later conquered and sacked by Media as well as Persia.