Herschel's brother, Sir Frederick William, pioneered in the study of galaxies and also discovered the planet Uranus.
Caroline worked on the complicated mathematics for her brothger's observations.
In 1928 the Royal Astronomical Society awarded her its gold medal for discovering eight comets
and arranging a catalogue of 2,500 nebulae and star clusters.
She later worked as a mathemati-
She was appointed
in 1983 as Commodore; the title of that grade changed to Rear Admiral in1985. Many colleges and universities have conferred honorary degrees on Admiral Hopper, and she was the recipient of
the first Computer Sciences 'Man of the Year' award presented by the Data Processing Management Association.
Sofya Kovalevskaya wrote a remarkable thesis on partial differential equations. In 1884 she became professor of higher mathematics at the University of Stockholm.
Four years later she was
awarded the Prix Borodin for a paper on the rotation of a solid body around a fixed point.
Her work was so extra-ordinary that the value of the prize was doubled.
In 1959 in the Olduvai Gorge of Tanzania Mary Leaky uncovered a fossil hominid that was named
Zinjanthropus boisei, which is now recognized as Australopithecus, an extinct side branch of the
genus Homo. Later she found another hominid - Homo habilis - providing evidence of coexisting hominid
groups one or two million years ago in East Africa.
Her field work in Samoa provided material for her first book. She was mainly interested in childhood and adolescence, and the cultural conditioning of sexual behaviour.
Later, some of her conclusions had to be revised and
critics challenged her methodolgy.