English physicist and chemist, who discovered electro- magnetic induction in 1831. He found that moving a magnet through a coil of copper wire caused an electric current to flow in the wire. The electric generator and the electric motor are based on this principle.
Faraday's work in electrochemistry led him to discover a mathematical relationship
between electricity and the combining power of a chemical element which he expressed
in Farady's Law, the basic law of electrolysis.
In 1934, while professor of physics at the University of Rome, Fermi began experiments where he bombarded a variety of elements with neutrons. He proved that slow neutrons are very effective in producing radioactive atoms. Not realizing he had split the atom, Fermi announced what he thought were elements beyond uranium.
In 1938 Fermi escaped Fascist Italy. Four years later, at the University of Chicago, he developed the first atomic pile, and produced the first nuclear chain reaction.
He later worked on the atomic bomb project at Los Alamos, N.M. He also won the Nobel prize in physics for his theoretical work on nuclear processes.
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Fleming discovered penicillin accidentally when he saw that a bit of mold that had fallen from a culture plate in his laboratory had destroyed bacteria around it.
He also discovered lysozyme, a substance found in human tears. Even when diluted, the agent can disdsolve certain germs.
Ford revolutionized factory production with his assembly-line methods. Because of savings made by mass production his 'Model T' automobile could be sold at prices many people could afford. He sold more than 15,000,000 'Model T's' between 1908 and 1927.
Later, during WW II, one of his plants became the largest
aircraft assembly plant in the world, and made B-24 Liberator bombers until the end of the war.
Fugger, the wealthiest merchant of his day, learned the art of commerce in Venice. His became the most important banking institution in Europe, and he had the monopoly of silver and copper mines. He obtained the right to mint the coins of the Vatican from the Pope, and he had an important role in the system of tax collection and payment of indulgences from the Vatican coffers.
Fugger financed the political and military undertakings of Maximilian I and Charles V: just for the election of the latter, he contributed 300,000 florins. In 1519, he established in Augsburg the 'Fuggerei', a small city within the city, consisting of 106 small houses intended for the most needy citizens.
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