MACHMUD
of GHAZNI
c.971 - 1030
Sultan
of Afghanistan



Machmud was the ruler of Ghazni, a kingdom comprising Afghanistan and part of Iran.

Machmud conquered Kashmir and the Punjab and for twenty-five years made yearly invasions of Northern India.

Machmud plundered Northern India and used the booty to patronize his court in Ghazni making it the centre of Persian-Islamic civilization rivalling the splendour of Baghdad.

Firdausi, the great Persian poet resided at his court, so did the mathematician Al Biruni.

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