c.971 - 1030
Machmud was the ruler of Ghazni, a kingdom comprising Afghanistan and part of Iran.
Machmud conquered Kashmir and the Punjab and for twenty-five years made yearly invasions of Northern India.
Machmud plundered Northern India and used the booty to patronize his court in Ghazni making it the centre of Persian-Islamic civilization rivalling the splendour of Baghdad.
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