Jose de San Martin
Together with Bolivar San Martin led South America's independence struggles from Spain.
In 1817 he led an army of liberation in the epic crossing of the Andes; freed Chile in 1818,
and in 1821 invaded Peru. After a quarrel with Bolivar, he retired to France.
He quelled Texan resistance at the Alamo (1836), but was
later defeated and captured; seizing power again in 1839 he ruled until 1845,
but was routed by US troops in the Mexican War of 1846-8.
He accepted British Protectorate status in 1915,
then occupied Hejaz (1926) and established the kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. He signed the
first oil exploration treaty in 1933.
This brought him into conflict with the Mamlukes of
Egypt: he conquered Syria and Egypt, abolished the Mamluke sultanate and
annexed its territories to the Ottoman state.
He created the Taj Mahal (1632-49), in memory of his favourite
wife, Mumtaz Mahal. He was imprisoned in 1657 during a power struggle between his four sons,
and died in captivity.
He pioneered the disciplined use of the short, stabbing
assegai.King Shaka established himself as ruler in 1818 and crushed all rivals in
Natal-Zululand before being assassinated by his half-brothers.