As member of the Continental Congress Madison played a leading role in framing the US Constitution.
He helped to found the
Democratic-Republican Party; served President Jefferson as
Secreatary of State; and became the fourth US President (1809-17).
During his presidency war broke out between America and Great Britain.
Following a failed invasion of Savoy he went into exile in London,
returning to Italy in 1848. He was the main advocate of an independent
Italian Republic and was disappointed by the emergence of an
Italian kingdom in 1861.
His reign was occupied by endless warfare in the Mediterranean; and on the northern frontiers. He invaded Transylvania, and unsucessfully besieged Vienna in 1683.
The subsequent loss of Hungary led to his deposition in 1687 and
detention until his death.
He soon challenged the power of the sultan and invaded Syria, which
he had to give up after European intervention. In 1841 he was appointed
hereditary ruler of Egypt and Sudan and is considered the founder of modern Egypt.
In 1922 he organized his famous March on Rome and took over the government. He took the title 'Il Duce' (the leader), abolished democracy, improved the railway system, and signed an agreement with the Vatican.
Externally he invaded Ethiopia (1935), supported
Franco in the Spanish Civil War and joined Hitler in World War II.