Babeuf defended the principles of the French Constitution of 1793 against the policies of the Directory (the executive between 1795-9).
In 1796 he published a Manifesto advocating an equal distribution of land and income and a call for an insurrection against the Directory.
The insurrection failed and Babeuf
was guillotined. Subsequently he became a legendary figure among later Socialist thinkers.
He consolidated Ottoman rule in the Balkans, Asia Minor,
and the eastern Mediterranean. He successfully opposed the
heretical Safavid dynasty of Persia.
A dispute over succession between his sons led to his abdication.
During WW II he cooperated with the British but led the political and military struggle for Jewish independence against them, 1947-48.
He was the creator of the German empire in 1871 after victory over France.
Known as the 'Iron Chancellor' because of his anti-socialist legislation
he instituted important social, economic and imperial policies and played a
leading role in the European alliance systems.