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John Adams
1735-1826
US President




Second President of the United States (1797-1801).

He was a leading advocate of resistance to British rule before the American War of Independence. He was American ambassador to Britain (1785-8), and author of 'Thoughts on Government'

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Alexander II
1818-81
Tsar of Russia





The son of Nicholas I, Alexander II succeeded in 1855.

He emancipated the serfs in 1861, and introduced legal, and military reforms. He extended the Russian frontiers into the Caucasus and Central Asia, and defeated Turkey in the last of the Russo-Turkish wars (1877-8). He was assassinated.

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Ataturk
1881-1938
President of Turkey




Originally named Mustapha Kemal, he was born in Salonika. He graduated from the Istanbul Military Academy. In 1919 he resigned from the army to support the Turkish independence movement.

He declared the creation of the state of Turkey in 1923 and obtained the abolition of the sultanate. Under his presidency (1923-38), the Turkish Republic promoted Turkish nationalism and secularism. He stressed the republican form of government representing the power of the electorate.

The Islamic courts of law were abolished and a new constitution in 1928 removed all references to religious life. After 1933 Kemal Mustafa assumed the name of Ataturk.

The first Moslem nation to become a Republic, Turkey has served since the early 1920s as a model for Moslem nations in the emerging world. Ataturks major legacy is the separation of church and state within an Islamic nation.

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Ataturk website + Biography





































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Aurangzeb
1618-1707
Mogul Emperor





Last of India's great Mogul emperors, successor of Shahjahan he ruled much of India for almost fifty years.

Aurangzeb's reversal of the traditional policy of tolerance towards Hindus led to many rebellions, and wars with the Rajputs and the Marathas. Under his rule the empire began a slow but steady disintegration.

www link :
Biography