German poet whose poems (lieder) were set to music by great composers such as Schumann and Brahms.
Heine was born at Dusseldorf of Jewish parents, studied law at Gottingen, travelled in Italy and later lived in Paris where he socialized with Victor Hugo, George Sand and Berlioz.
The French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars deeply influenced his thinking. His poetry, which he began to write at an early age, covered tragedy, humour and romance.
His works include Rosshalde, Siddhartha, Steppenwolf,
His psycholgical and mystical concerns made him something of a
cult figure after his death since many felt that his 'Journey to the East'
epitomized their psychedelic quest to go 'further'.
Holderlin gained the reputation of being one Germany's gretaest poets.
His recognition as an important philosophical figure is more recent.
His most famous works were 'Essay on the Origin of Language' and 'Outlines of a Philosophy of the History of Man'.
Goethe was transformed from being a rather conventional poet into a great artist largely through early impact of him of Herder's ideas.
In middle life he became
interested in writing. He was a German writer and caricaturist, whose tales of the supernatural and fantastic
have been translated many times and were the inspiration of Offenbach's opera 'The Tales of Hoffmann' and
later musical works by Paul Hindemith.