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Sade, Marquis de

1740-1814



French author of erotic writings that gave rise to the term 'sadism'. He began, soon after his marriage, to consort prostitutes and developed a taste for sexual perversions. He was imprisoned repeatedly, in Aix, Vincennes and in the Bastille (1784), where he wrote 'Les 120 Journees de Sodome' (The 120 Days of Sodom).

His most famous novel is 'Les Infortunes de la vertu' (Adversities of Virtue) where he allowed his sexual fantasies full rein. After his release (1790), he wrote the novels 'Justine', 'La Philosophie dans le boudoir' (Philosophy in the Bedroom), and 'Juliette' . His last years were spent in the insane asylum at Charenton, where he persuaded his fellow inmates to perform his plays.

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Master of Darkness






























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Stael, Germaine

1766-1817



Madame de Stael originally Anne-Louise Germaine Necker, was born in Paris - a brilliantly accomplished woman of letters, and conversationalist. She married in 1786 the Swedish ambassador in Paris, Baron Eric de Stael-Holstein.

Both before and after the French Revolution, her salon became a centre of political discussion.
In 1803 she was forced to leave Paris. She moved to Coppet, near Geneva and visited Weimar, Berlin, and Vienna, returning to France at intervals.

She wrote novels, plays, essays, historical and critical works, and political memoirs, becoming known with her 'Lettres' on Rousseau, and achieving European fame with her novel, 'Corinne' and her major work, De L'Allemagne (On Germany).

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Stendhal, Frederic

1783-1842



Stendhal - pen name for Marie-Henri Beule - was born in Grenoble, France. He served in the French army, lived in Italy for seven years, and then returned to Paris. in 1830 he was appointed French consul in Rome, which left him time to write.

Stendhal became one of the leading 19th century French novelists whose works are famous for their psychological and political insight. His best known works are the two novels 'Le Rouge et le Noir' (1830) and 'La Chartreuse de Parme' (1839).

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Biography