van Gogh, Vincent
Dutch artist whose tragic life and brilliant canvases made him a legend.
Vincent van Gogh was largely self-taught as an artist, although he received help from his cousin, Mauve. His first works were heavily painted, mud-colored and clumsy attempts to represent the life of the poor (e.g. Potato-Eaters, 1885, Amsterdam), influenced by one of his artistic heroes, Millet.
He moved to Paris in 1886, living with his devoted brother, Theo, who as a dealer introduced him to artists like Gauguin, Pissarro, Seurat and Toulouse-Lautrec. Under the influence of the Impressionists his images grew more colorful. His brush began to form thick linear strokes.
In 1888 he settled in Arles in southern France where his mental disturbances became more serious. His art, becoming 'expressionistic', expressed his inner reactions to the world through turning, swirling brush strokes, thick paint, and brilliant color.
In 1786 Goya was named court painter in Madrid but he never compromised his art. He painted his royal subjects with brutal truth.
During the Spanish war against Napoleon he began his etchings of social protest depicting man's inhumanity to man. His most famous painting ' The Shooting ' was inspired by this terrible events.
Griffith was a pioneer American film director who produced 'Birth of a Nation', an epic of the Civil War and Reconstruction. It was the first full-length feature motion picture.
Griffith is credited with starting the use of the 'flash-back', the 'close-up' and the 'fade-out'.
Guardi was a Venetian landscape artist who painted numerous romantic impressions of Venice. Not well-known in his time he was rediscovered in the period of Impressionism when his rapidly painted views were seen as having qualities of spontaneity.
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