Credit This essay is based on the book 'On Giants' Shoulders' by Melvyn Bragg. . Quote from Lewis Wolpert, Professor of Biology as Applied to Medicine at University College, London. . Babylonian Mathematics The Babylonians had multiplication tables of great complexity; they had tables of square and cube roots, and reciprocals, and by about 1800 BC their ability to solve algebraic and geometrical problems became very great. They could solve fairly complex equations, but they did so always in numerical terms, and always by concrete example, for they did not possess the notion of generality. Strangely, they had no theoretical interest whatsoever. The most important ingredient to spark science is a general curiosity about the nature of the world  a curiosity which was entirely lacking in Mesopotamia.
. Counter Argument
Sir Geoffrey Lloyd, Master of Darwin College, Cambridge,
'.. if we have Chinese mathematicians who are
able to develop eclipse cycles that enable them to predict lunar and solar eclipses, what are we going to
call that if we do not call it science.' . Egyptian Technology The Egyptians had no wheels or pulleys in the Pyramid Age, and the secret of their success was unlimited manpower, patience, and a strong artistic sense. They used both a lunar and solar calendar to predict harvesting seasons but they never ventured into mathematical astronomy. Egyptian building methods were very sophisticated and the men who devised these methods were as skillful as one could find in any culture.
But they lacked any spark of curiosity about why these techniques worked. The Egyptians,
like the Babylonians, were deficient, not in technical skill and knowledge, but in curiosity.
Desiring so little to understand the phenomena of the natural world, they influenced their
successors technically but not conceptually.
