The Ottoman Empire (established in 1301)
advanced rapidly until it spread all the way from the Euphrates to the Danube.
The Byzantine Empire shrivelled away until it was reduced to a few territories and a
small enclave around Constantinople.
Unlike the Arabs, who thought the use of
firearms dishonorable, the Ottomans became masters of artillery.
The Fall of Constantinople marks the end of the Middle Ages and the
beginning of a new epoch in Europe. Many Greek scholars moved to Italy, initiating
there the development of European Humanism, while the legal succession of Byzantium
and leadership of the Orthodox Church transferred to Tsardom and the
By losing access to the Black Sea Europe was deprived of the land route to India; the search for a new sea route brought about the oversea discoveries of the New World.