King of Egypt
Before 3000 BC two separate kingdoms developed in Lower and Upper Egypt.
The former centered at Buto in the Delta, the later ruled from Hierakonpolis.
Menes and Narmer may be the same person, Menes being the Greek name of the legendary first human king of Egypt. He is depicted wearing the red and white crowns of Lower and Upper Egypt, which is symbolic of unification
Menes is also credited with the founding of the capital, Memphis, located near modern Cairo.
Netjerikhet Djoser (or Zoser) was the 2nd King of Egypt's 3rd Dynasty.
He is known as the king who commissioned the building of the Step Pyramid at Saqqara. This is recognized as the first monumental building made of stone. His name is linked with that of the architect who planned and constructed the first stone buildings in the world, the high-priest and vizier Imhotep.
Djoser extended Egypt's southern border as far as the Nile's First Cataract. He also sent several military expeditions to the Sinai, during which the local Bedouins were defeated.
Later kings would imitate much about Djoser, and generally regard him as a king they wished to be associated with.
When his father died Thutmosis III was still a young child and his stepmother was appointed regent. After a few years she declared herself pharaoh and ruled as Queen Hatshepsut for many years. She sent trading expeditions to other parts of Africa, and built many temples and palaces.
When Thutmosis became sole ruler, he ended the peaceful policy and launched a series of military campaigns that lasted about 20 years. He conquered Palestine and Syria, and under him Egypt experienced its greates territorial expansion, from the Euphrates in Asia to the 4th cataract of the Nile.
The Empire he created lasted for 100 years. He made Thebes and Memphis the political and cultural centers of the world.
Ramses II, who reigned during the 19th dynasty, was known as Ramses the Great.
His glories surpassed all other Pharaohs, and Egypt reached an overwhelming state of prosperity during his reign and he built monuments all over Egypt.
He fought the Hyksos and reconquered Syria. He was the first king in history to sign a peace treaty with his enemies, the Hittites, ending long years of wars and hostility.
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